The anchorhold was often attached to the wall of a church. The most famous English Anchoress was
Julian of Norwich.
This religious Medieval life style was also pursued by men, who were called anchorites.
The Anchoress and the 'Rule of Life'
A “Rule of Life” was created in the Medieval era of the Middle Ages. This rule was devised for an anchoress. The “Rule of Life” was known as the 'Ancrene Wisse'. The Ancrene Wisse stated that an anchoress was anchored under a church like an anchor under the side of a ship, to hold it, so that the waves and storms do not pitch it over." In fact, the word anchorite comes ultimately from the Greek verb 'anacwre-ein' which means "to withdraw." The anchorhold was often attached to the wall of a church. The Rule decreed that:
- The cell, or anchorhold, of an anchoress should have three windows including the 'Squint':
- One window was to open into the church so that the anchoress could receive communion and follow the church services. This window was called a 'Squint'
- The second window was to allow the anchoress to be in contact with her assistant. Food would be passed through this window and refuse taken out
- The third window allowed people to come and seek her wisdom, advice, and prayers
also contained a private altar, a bed, and a crucifix.
Permission to become an Anchoress
A potential anchoress, or anchorite, required permission from a bishop to enter this way of life. The Bishop would undertake the following process:
- The personal credentials of the would-be anchoress were checked to ensure her fitness of such a life - sometimes ordering a probationary period before permanent enclosure
- The bishop then determined if their was adequate financial support to sustain the anchoress for their lifetime
- He then determined a suitable location for the anchorage
- He then performed (or ordered performed) the ceremony, or rite, of enclosure
- He then agreed to oversee the well-being and support of the anchoress
Enclosure - The Living Entombment and Ritual Burial of the Anchoress
The incarceration of an anchoress was accompanied with due ceremony. This was called the Enclosure ceremony in which an anchorite or anchoress, was incarcerated, or enclosed, in a cell. Her living entombment and ritual burial, was an act of binding her body and her material surroundings to the body of Christ. The Anchoress was essentially dead to the World. The order of enclosure stated that:
- The soon to be Anchoress should fast and make confession
- Keeping vigil throughout the preceding night
- Attend Mass. This would include her prostration before the altar
- After the Mass a procession of the congregation would include chanting and the anchoress would carry a lighted taper
- Sometimes her grave would be made ready at the time of her enclosure and kept open in the cell as a 'memento mori'. In these instances there was a complete burial ceremony. The anchoress would be laid out on a funeral bier and given the last rites
- Prayers would be said and the door to the cell, or anchorage, would be locked. In some instances there was no door to the anchorage - the anchoress would be walled up
The Clothes worn by an Anchoress
There was no regulation clothes but in winter a pilch (a triangular piece of material) or a thick garment to keep out the cold and in summer a kirtle with mantle, black head-dress, wimple, cape or veil. The one stipulation was that the dress had to be plain.
The Life of an Anchoress
An anchoress lived in extreme poverty eating chiefly vegetarian food. The
life of an anchoress would be spent in prayer and contemplation. Other
solitary pursuits were also followed especially embroidery and writing. The
anchoress would also receive people who would seek her advice on both
practical and religious matters.